We can use the ProxyMetaClass to intercept methods in a class within a selected block for the current thread.
Interceptors with ProxyMetaClass
By using ProxyMetaClass, we can attach an interceptor to a class for a block of code. The Groovy-supplied Interceptor interface has three methods. The beforeInvoke() method specifies code to be executed before the intercepted method, the doInvoke() indicates whether to execute the intercepted method, and afterInvoke() executes after the intercepted method finishes, or after a false-returning doInvoke(). The result parameter passed to afterInvoke() is the result of executing the method, or what was returned from beforeInvoke() if the intercepted method wasn't executed. What afterInvoke() returns is returned from the method call in the main flow of the program.
We can invoke a different method instead of the one called:
We can even use interceptors on predefined Java classes:
We can prevent methods being intercepted inside the interceptor by using special & notation:
Like categories, interceptors are only valid for a certain block in the current thread. We can also combine categories with interceptors in various ways, also only valid in the current thread:
The special & notation for bypassing interceptors handles simple code, but for more complex code we often need our own UninterceptedInterceptor:
Intercepting many classes in one block
Often, we want to intercept more than one class in one block. This example is of an aliasing interceptor, which disables some English-language names for selected classes, and replaces them with Spanish-language names. We re-use the UninterceptedInterceptor class and useInterceptor utility from the previous example.
We call the code like so:
We can put the cascadingly indented code into a list to make it neater by defining a utility category method on the List class.
Our own ProxyMetaClass
We can define our own proxy meta-classes. One case for which we'd do so is to implement our own style of interceptors, here, an around-interceptor:
We can then run our code:
Using many Interceptors with our own ProxyMetaClass
We can only use one interceptor with the ProxyMetaClass supplied by Groovy, so we need to provide our own when attaching more than one interceptor to a class:
Using a MultiInterceptorProxyMetaClass for the Observer pattern
A common design pattern is the Observer pattern. Using interceptors, we can abstract the observation code into its own class, the ObserverProtocol, which can be used by subclasses. It enables us to add and remove observing objects for an observed object. We use method interception to decouple the observing and observed objects from the observation relationship itself.
We can extend this ObserverProtocol with domain-specific observers. The example is a Groovy rewrite of one first implemented in AspectJ by Jan Hannemann and Gregor Kiczales.
Now we run the program. It first creates five Screen objects (s1, s2, s3, s4, and s5) and one point object, then sets up some observing relationships (namely, s1 and s2 will observe color changes to the point, s3 and s4 will observe coordinate changes to the point, and s5 will observe s2's and s4's display method), and finally, make changes to the point, first, the color, then its x-coordinate. The color change triggers s1 and s2 to each print an appropriate message. s2's message triggers its observer s5 to print a message. The coordinate change triggers s3 and s4 to print a message. s4's message also triggers the observer s5.
Using a MultiInterceptorProxyMetaClass and UninterceptedFriendlyInterceptor for the Decorator pattern
We can use more than one unintercepted interceptor with a proxy meta-class. A good example where this is necessary is the Decorator pattern. We re-use the MultiInterceptorProxyMetaClass from previous examples, but must write a special unintercepted interceptor, which we call an UninterceptedFriendlyInterceptor, that can be used as one of many with the MultiInterceptorProxyMetaClass.
For our example Decorator pattern, we'll code an OutputStreamWriter that prints extra if necessary. We use decorators extended from the UninterceptableFriendlyInterceptor. Firstly, a NewlineDecorator that uses a line-width policy to perhaps place the output on a new line. And second, a very simple WhitespaceDecorator that ensures there's some whitespace between any two consecutive items output. Each has only very simple logic for this example.
After the classes, interceptors, and code block are matched up, the printing logic and the OutputStreamWriter are both unaware that the output is being decorated. Each decorator will perhaps modify the output, then pass it along to the next decorator to do the same. The distinct items of output sent to the OutputStreamWriter are separated by spaces, whether or not a space was in the output string in the program, and the output fits within a certain width.