SonarQube Platform Overview
Sonar Image Added
The SonarQube platform is made of 3 components:
- A Database that stores One to store:
- the configuration
- A Web Server that is used to navigate the results of the analyzes and make configuration
- A Client that will run source code analyzers to compute data on projects
Sonar supports several database engines you can choose amongst.
If you simply want to make a test or a demo, you can use H2 (Apache Derby prior to Sonar 3.2) as a database. H2 (Derby prior to Sonar 3.2) is shipped with Sonar and does not need any installation. This database must not be used for production.
To use one of the other databases, you simply need to create a schema and provide permissions to create, update and delete objects. Tables and indexes will then be automatically created when launching Sonar for the first time. A sample scripts to create the schema in MySQL can be found in here.
When creating a database, the recommended character set is UTF-8.
Installing Sonar Server
- Prior to the installation, check the requirements.
- Download and unzip the distribution (note that native packages are also available for Linux distributions, see this documentation page for more details).
- of the SonarQube instance (security, plugins settings, etc.)
- the quality snapshots of projects, views, etc.
- One for users to browse quality snapshots and configure the SonarQube instance
- One or more to analyze projects
- The SonarQube platform cannot have more than a single web server and a single database.
- For optimal performance, each component (Database, Web Server, Analyzers) should be installed on a dedicated machine. However, the Server and the Database can be installed on the same machine.
- Analyzers will scale by adding machines.
- The Database and the Analyzers must be located in the same network.
- The Database and the Analyzers must not be installed on the same machine.
- All the machines must be time synchronized.
Several database engines are supported.
Create an empty schema and a sonarqube user. Grant this sonarqube user permissions to create, update and delete objects for this schema. The charset of the database has to be set to "UTF-8" and the language (database and user) to "English". Here is a sample script for MySQL.
Microsoft SQL Server
Note that collation must be case-sensitive (CS) and accent-sensitive (AS).
There are two well-known engines that can be used in MySQL: MyISAM and InnoDB. MyISAM is the oldest of the two engines and is being progressively replaced by InnoDB. InnoDB is clearly faster and scales better with SonarQube as the number of projects under quality control increases. If you were an early adopter of SonarQube, you probably have a series of table that are still using MyISAM. To improve performances, you should change the engine for all tables to InnoDB.
Once all SonarQube tables are using the InnoDB engine, the first thing to do is allocate a maximum amount of RAM to your MySQL instance with the
innodb_buffer_pool_size parameter and give at least 15Mb to the
query_cache_size parameter. Read this article about InnoDB Performance Optimization Basics for more information.
When having two SonarQube schemas on the same Oracle instance, especially if they are of two different versions, SonarQube gets confused and picks the first it finds. To fix this issue:
- Either privileges associated to the SonarQube Oracle users should be decreased
Or a trigger should be defined on Oracle side to automatically alter the SonarQube Oracle user session when establishing a new connection:
Code Block language text
ALTER SESSION SET current_schema="MY_SONARQUBE_SCHEMA"
If you want to use a custom schema and not the default "public" one, the PostgreSQL
search_path property must be set:
ALTER USER mySonarUser SET search_path to mySonarQubeSchema
First, check the requirements.
<install_directory> (below) refers to the path to the directory where the SonarQube distribution has been unzipped.
Setting the access to the Database
Edit <install_directory>/conf/sonar.properties to configure the database accesssettings. Templates are available for every supported database. Just uncomment them and configure the template you need and comment out the lines dedicated to H2 (Derby prior to version 3.2)::
For Oracle, copy the JDBC driver to /extensions/jdbc-driver/[YOUR DATABASE]/.
Adding the JDBC Driver
Drivers for the supported databases (except Oracle) are already provided. Do not replace the provided drivers; they are the only ones supported).
For Oracle, copy the JDBC driver into <install_directory>/extensions/jdbc-driver/oracle.
Starting the Web Server
The default listen port is "9000, " and the default context path is / and Sonar listens by default to all network interfaces: '0.0.0.0'. Once launched, the Sonar web server is available on http://localhost:9000. Parameters can be changed into the file "/". These values can be changed in <install_directory>/conf/sonar.properties:
sonar.web.host : =192.0.0.1 sonar.web.port: =80 sonar.web.context: =/sonar
Execute the following script to start the server:
- On Linux/Mac OS: bin/<YOUR OS>/sonar.sh start
- On Windows: bin/windows-x86-32XX/StartSonar.bat
- Read Installing SonarQube on AIX, HPUX or Solaris for other platforms
Tuning the Web Server
By default, SonarQube is configured to run on any computer with a simple Java JRE. For better performance, the first thing to do when installing a production instance is to use a Java JDK and activate the server mode by uncommenting the following line in <install_directory>/conf/wrapper.conf:
To change the Java JVM used by SonarQube, simply edit <install_directory>/conf/wrapper.conf and update the following line:
Advanced Installation Features
- Deploying Sonar on a Tomcat or Jetty
- Running Sonar Running SonarQube as a Service on Windows or Linux
- Running Sonar SonarQube behind a Proxy
- Running SonarQube over HTTPS
There are different kinds of client to launch analysis:
Multiple analyzers are available:
- SonarQube Runner: recommended for all non-Maven projects
- Maven: recommended for all projects built with Maven, see installation and configuration guide.
- SonarQube Ant Task: recommended for to integrate with projects built with Ant, see installation and configuration guide.
- Gradle: recommended for to integrate with projects built with Gradle, see installation and configuration guide.
- CI Engine: see Jenkins plugin or Bamboo Hudson plugin or Bamboo plugin or AnthillPro plugin. Note that other CI engines can be used even if there is no Sonar plugin available.SonarQube plugin available.
Failed to launch the SonarQube service on Windows platform with a LocalSystem account
This error happens when the temporary file path specified for the Local System doesn't exist. Assuming that environment variables have their default settings and that Windows is installed on the C drive, the following paths should exist:
- Windows Server 2003, Windows XP: C:\Windows\system32\config\systemprofile\Local Settings\Temp
- Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Windows Vista: C:\Windows\system32\config\systemprofile\AppData\Local\Temp
In most cases, the Temp folder is missing and should be created. See SONAR-2660.
Cannot connect to MySQL database
By default, remote access to MySQL database server is disabled for security reasons. If you want to remotely access the database server from the Sonar Maven plugin, you need to follow this quick guide.
Failed to start on Windows Vista
SonarQube seems unable to start when installed under the Program Files directory on Windows Vista. It should therefore not be installed there.
Failed to start SonarQube with Oracle due to bad USERS table structure
When another(s) USERS table exists in the Oracle DB, if the sonarqube user has read access on this other USERS table, the SonarQube web server can't start and an exception like the following one is thrown:
ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError: ORA-00904: "TOTO": invalid identifier : INSERT INTO users (login, name, email, crypted_password, salt, created_at, updated_at, remember_token, remember_token_expires_at, toto, id) VALUES('admin', 'Administrator', '', 'bba4c8a0f808f9798cf8b1c153a4bb4f9178cf59', '2519754f77ea67e5d7211cd1414698f465aacebb', TIMESTAMP'2011-06-24 22:09:14', TIMESTAMP'2011-06-24 22:09:14', null, null, null, ?) ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError: ORA-00904: "TOTO": invalid identifier : INSERT INTO users (login, name, email, crypted_password, salt, created_at, updated_at, remember_token, remember_token_expires_at, toto, id) VALUES('admin', 'Administrator', '', 'bba4c8a0f808f9798cf8b1c153a4bb4f9178cf59', '2519754f77ea67e5d7211cd1414698f465aacebb', TIMESTAMP'2011-06-24 22:09:14', TIMESTAMP'2011-06-24 22:09:14', null, null, null, ?)
To fix this issue, the rights of the sonarqube Oracle user must be decreased to remove read access on the other(s) USERS table(s).
Failed to connect to the Update Center via proxy
Double check that settings for proxy in file SONARQUBE_HOME/conf/sonar.properties are correctly set.
Note that if your username contains "\" (backslash), then it should be escaped - for example username "domain\user" in file should look like:
For some proxies, exception "java.net.ProtocolException: Server redirected too many times" might mean incorrect username or password.