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Groovy AST transformations must be performed in one of the nine defined compiler phases.

Global transformations may be applied in any phase, but local transformations may only be applied in the semantic analysis phase or later. Briefly, the compiler phases are:

  • Initialization: source files are opened and environment configured
  • Parsing: the grammar is used to to produce tree of tokens representing the source code
  • Conversion: An abstract syntax tree (AST) is created from token trees.
  • Semantic Analysis: Performs consistency and validity checks that the grammar can't check for, and resolves classes.
  • Canonicalization: Complete building the AST
  • Instruction Selection: instruction set is chosen, for example java5 or pre java5
  • Class Generation: creates the binary output in memory
  • Output: write the binary output to the file system
  • Finalization: Perform any last cleanup

Generally speaking, there is more type information available later in the phases. If your transformation is concerned with reading the AST, then a later phase where information is more plentiful might be a good choice. If your transformation is concerned with writing AST, then an earlier phase where the tree is more sparse might be more convenient.

Static Property Transformations

As a particular example, Groovy aggressively and statically types the static properties of a class, as demonstrated here:

Code Block
class Foo {
	static doLog() {"This won't even compile!") }
Foo.metaClass.static.log = [info:{ println it }] // Intended to enable the above code to work (but doesn't work)
org.codehaus.groovy.control.MultipleCompilationErrorsException: startup failed, /Users/robert/dev/workspace/Groovy-WithLog/test/Bogus.groovy: 2: Apparent variable 'log' was found in a static scope but doesn't refer to a local variable, static field or class. Possible causes:
You attemped to reference a variable in the binding or an instance variable from a static context.
You mispelled a classname or statically imported field. Please check the spelling.
You attempted to use a method 'log' but left out brackets in a place not allowed by the grammar.
 @ line 2, column 19.
   	static doLog() {"This won't even compile!") }

1 error

So if you want to create an AST transform that creates a static property, you have to hook in before this check is performed: in practice, this means the Conversion phase (Semantic Analysis is where you get busted).  In using a phase that early, though, most types won't be resolved, and so insofar as type resolution is significant (e.g. in checking for annotations of a particular class), it will have to be hand-rolled.

Further Information

To learn more about what AST is produced in each phase, you can use the AST viewer in Groovy console to explore the output in different phases.