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assert File.separator == '\\' && File.separatorChar == '\\' as char
    //used for formatting file names
assert File.pathSeparator == ';' && File.pathSeparatorChar == ';' as char

...

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def f= new File('File.txt') //relative file name
assert f.name == 'File.txt'
assert ! f.isAbsolute()
assert f.path == 'File.txt'
assert f.parent == null
assert f.absolutePath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt' //returns a string
assert f.absoluteFile.toString() == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'
    //returns a File object instead of string
assert f.canonicalPath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'
assert f.canonicalFile.toString() == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'
    //returns a File object instead of string
assert f.toURI().toString() == 'file:/D:/Groovy/Scripts/File.txt'
    //toURI() returns a URI object

f= new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts/File.txt') //absolute file name
assert f.name == 'File.txt'
assert f.isAbsolute()
assert f.path == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'
assert f.parent == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts'
assert f.parentFile.toString() == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts'
    //returns a File object instead of string
assert f.absolutePath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'
assert f.canonicalPath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\File.txt'

f= new File('../File.txt')
assert f.name == 'File.txt'
assert ! f.isAbsolute()
assert f.path == '..\\File.txt'
assert f.parent == '..'
assert f.absolutePath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts\\..\\File.txt'
assert f.canonicalPath == 'D:\\Groovy\\File.txt'

f= new File('') //current directory
assert f.name == ''
assert ! f.isAbsolute()
assert f.path == ''
assert f.parent == null
assert f.absolutePath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts'
assert f.canonicalPath == 'D:\\Groovy\\Scripts'

assert new File('File.txt') == new File('File.txt')
    //compares two filenames' lexical names
assert new File('File.txt').compareTo(new File('File.txt')) == 0
    //equivalent method name
assert new File('File.txt') != new File('../Scripts/File.txt')
    //lexical names different (although files are the same)

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def f1= new File('File1.txt')
f1 << 'abcdefg'
    //file created by writing to it; file appended to if it already exists
assert f1.length() == 7 && f1.size() == 7
assert f1.isFile() && ! f1.isDirectory() && ! f1.isHidden()

def f2= new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts', 'File2.txt')
    //we can optionally supply the parent, either as a string...
f2= new File(new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts'), 'File2.txt')
    //...or as a File object
assert ! f2.exists()
f2.createNewFile() //if it doesn't already exist
assert f2.exists()

def d1= new File('Directory1')
d1.mkdir() //make directory, if it doesn't already exist
def d2= new File('Directory2/SubDir1')
d2.mkdirs()
    //make directory, including necessary but nonexistent parent directories

println f1.getFreeSpace()
    //the number of unallocated bytes in the partition this abstract file is in
println f1.getUsableSpace()
    //the number of bytes available to this virtual machine in the partition
    //this abstract file is in
println f1.getTotalSpace() //the size of the partition this abstract file is in


//We can set file permissions:

assert f2.setWritable(true, false) && f2.canWrite()
    //set writable permission for every user
assert f2.setWritable(true) && f2.canWrite()
    //set writable permission on file for owner only
assert f2.setWritable(false, false) && ! f2.canWrite()
    //unset writable permission for every user
assert f2.setWritable(false) && ! f2.canWrite()
    //unset writable permission on file for owner only
f2.writable= true //property format for owner only
assert f2.canWrite()

assert f2.setReadOnly() && ! f2.canWrite()
assert f2.setExecutable(true, false) && f2.canExecute()
    //set executable permission for every user
assert f2.setExecutable(true) && f2.canExecute()
    //set executable permission on file for owner only
f2.executable= true //property format for owner only
assert f2.canExecute()
assert ! f2.setExecutable(false)
    //returns false because command unsuccessful: can't make file
    //nonexecutable on Windows, though can on other systems

assert f2.setReadable(true, false) && f2.canRead()
    //set readable permission for every user
assert f2.setReadable(true) && f2.canRead()
    //set readable permission on file for owner only
f2.readable= true //property format for owner only
assert f2.canRead()
assert ! f2.setReadable(false)
    //can't make file nonreadable on Windows


//We can retrieve a list of files from a directory:

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').list().toList() ==
//list() returns an array of strings
  ['Script.bat', 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt', 'Directory1', 'Directory2']
    //list() returns an array of strings

assert new File('Directory2').list().toList() == ['SubDir1']
assert new File('').list() == null
    //list() returns null if directory not explicitly specified

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').list(
    [accept:{d, f-> f ==~ /.*?1.*/ }] as FilenameFilter
  ).toList() ==   ['File1.txt', 'Directory1']
    //use a filter taking dir (File) and file (String) arguments, returningreturns boolean

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').list(
    {d, f-> f ==~ /.*?1.*/ } as FilenameFilter
  ).toList() == //shorter syntax
  ['File1.txt', 'Directory1'] //shorter syntax

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').listFiles().toList()*.name ==
//listFiles() returns array of File objects
  ['Script.bat', 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt', 'Directory1', 'Directory2']
    //listFiles() returns array of File objects

assert new File('Directory2').listFiles().toList()*.toString() ==
  ['Directory2\\SubDir1']

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').listFiles(
    {dir, file-> file ==~ /.*?\.txt/ } as FilenameFilter
  ).toList()*.name ==   [ 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt' ]

assert new File('D:/Groovy/Scripts').listFiles(
    [accept:{file-> file ==~ /.*?\.txt/ }] as FileFilter
  ).toList()*.name ==   [ 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt' ]
    //use a filter taking one argument only, returning boolean


//Renaming and deleting files:

f2.renameTo( new File('RenamedFile2.txt') )
assert f2.name == 'File2.txt' //because File object is immutable
assert new File('RenamedFile2.txt').exists()

[ new File('RenamedFile2.txt'), new File('Directory1'), new File('Directory2') ].
    each{ it.delete() } //delete files
assert ! new File('RenamedFile2.txt').exists()
assert ! new File('Directory1').exists()
assert new File('Directory2').exists()
    //because each sub-directory must be deleted separately

assert new File('Directory2/SubDir1').delete() //returns true if file deleted OK
assert new File('Directory2').delete()
assert ! new File('Directory2').exists()

new File('File1.txt').deleteOnExit()
assert new File('File1.txt').exists() //but will be deleted when VM exits

def mod= new File('File1.txt').lastModified()
assert new File('File1.txt').setLastModified(mod - 60000)
    //60 seconds previously, returns true if successful
new File('File1.txt').lastModified= mod - 120000
    //property syntax for setting only
assert new File('File1.txt').lastModified() == mod - 120000

...

Code Block
println File.listRoots().toList()*.toString()
    //listRoots() returns an array of File objects

...

Code Block
File.createTempFile('Tem', '.txt')
    //created in directory for temporary files
File.createTempFile('Tem', '.txt', new File('D:\\Groovy\\Scripts'))
    //eg, created D:/Groovy/Scripts/Tem59217.txt

...

Code Block
def f1= new File('File1.txt') << 'abcdefg:hijklmnop:qrstuv:wxyz\n'
    //create and write to the file
f1.leftShift('123:456:7890\n') //equivalent method name
new File('File2.txt').createNewFile()
[new File('Directory1'), new File('Directory2/SubDir1')].each{ it.mkdirs() }

def list= []
new File('D:\\Groovy\\Scripts').eachFile{ list<< it.name }
    //eachFile() returns a list of File objects
assert list ==
    ['Script.bat', 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt', 'Directory1', 'Directory2']

list= []
new File('D:\\Groovy\\Scripts').eachFileMatch(~/File.*?\.txt/){ list<< it.name }
    //a regular expression, or any caseable expression
assert list == ['File1.txt', 'File2.txt']

list= []
new File('D:\\Groovy\\Scripts').eachFileRecurse{ list<< it.name }
assert list == ['Script.bat', 'File1.txt', 'File2.txt',
                'Directory1', 'Directory2', 'SubDir1']

list= []
new File('D:\\Groovy\\Scripts').eachDir{ list<< it.name }
assert list == ['Directory1', 'Directory2']

list= []
f1.eachLine{ list<< it }
assert list == [ 'abcdefg:hijklmnop:qrstuv:wxyz', '123:456:7890' ]

list= f1.readLines()
assert list == [ 'abcdefg:hijklmnop:qrstuv:wxyz', '123:456:7890' ]

list= []
f1.splitEachLine(':'){ list<< it } //splits each line into a list
assert list == [
   ['abcdefg', 'hijklmnop', 'qrstuv', 'wxyz'],
   ['123', '456', '7890'],
]

def f2= new File('File2.txt')
f2.write('abcdefg\n') //can only write strings
assert f2.getText() == 'abcdefg\n'
f2.append('hijklmnop,')
f2.append(42) //can append any object
assert f2.getText() == '''abcdefg
hijklmnop,42'''

f2.write('一二三四五', 'unicode') //overwrites existing contents
assert f2.getText('unicode') == '一二三四五'
f2.append('六七八九十', 'unicode') //also appends unicode marker 0xFEFF
assert f2.getText('unicode') == '一二三四五' + (0xFEFF as char) + '六七八九十'

[ new File('File1.txt'),
   new File('File2.txt'),
   new File('Directory1'),
   new File('Directory2/SubDir1'),
   new File('Directory2'),
].each{ it.delete() } //delete files used by this example

Underlying these ways of reading and writing are streams, the topic of the next tutorial.