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 Groovy is an agile dynamic language for the Java Platform with many features that inspired languages like Python, Ruby and Smalltalk, making them available to Java developers using a Java-like syntax.

 Groovy works cleanly with all existing Java objects and libraries and compiles straight to Java bytecode!

 Groovy is ideally designed for the following purposes :

  • Developing web applications in a quick, concise and fun way. The [*Grails|http://grails.codehaus.org]* demonstrates Groovy's capability in this area.
    * Bringing the power  of a scripting language to the JVM with seamless integration with the Java Platform
    * Writing concise, meaningful, test cases using Groovy's JUnit integration.
    * Prototyping and producing real industrial strength applications
    * Writing shell scripts easily

 *Groovy* can be used as a dynamically or staticly typed language and can either be compiled or interpreted

 Groovy introduces powerful additional features to the JVM such as:

  • Language conceptual enhancements
    • Support for closures - re-usable blocks of code
    • Native syntax for lists and maps
    • Support the Gof Builder pattern via the notion of builders
    • Syntax level regex operators and escape sequences
    • Native JavaBean support
    • Operator overloading  to simplify working with datatypes Collections and Maps
    • Polymorphic iteration and autoboxing
    • Extension of Java Standard Library through the GDK
    • TBD
  • In addition, Groovy provides useful standard features to enhance developer productivity such as:
  • And providing great user defined modules
    • Grails
    • Gram
    • COM Scripting
    • GroovySWT
    • GSP
    • GSQL
    • Process
    • XMLRPC
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h3. Groovy...

* is an agile and *dynamic language* for the *Java Virtual Machine*
* builds upon the strengths of Java but has *additional power features* inspired by languages like Python, Ruby and Smalltalk
* makes *modern programming features* available to Java developers with *almost-zero learning curve*
* provides the ability to *statically type check* and *statically compile* your code
* supports *Domain-Specific Languages* and other compact syntax so your code becomes *easy to read and maintain*
* makes writing shell and build scripts easy with its *powerful processing primitives*, OO abilities and an Ant DSL
* increases developer productivity by *reducing scaffolding code* when developing web, GUI, database or console applications
* *simplifies testing* by supporting unit testing and mocking out-of-the-box
* seamlessly *integrates with all existing Java classes and libraries*
* compiles straight to Java bytecode so you can use it anywhere you can use Java
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Experience Groovy 2.0

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Groovy 2.0 is the latest major and stable version of the popular dynamic language for the JVM. To learn more about the novelties, make sure to read the detailed article on InfoQ. In a nutshell, Groovy 2.0 adds static type checking to let the compiler tell you about the correctness of your code, static compilation for the performance of the critical parts of your application, modularity by splitting the Groovy JAR into smaller feature-oriented modules as well as allowing you to create your own extension modules, JDK 7 Project Coin syntax enhancements so that Groovy marries itself well with Java, and JDK 7 Invoke Dynamic integration to benefit from the dynamic language support of the JVM.

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"Groovy is like a super version of Java. It can leverage Java's enterprise capabilities but also has cool productivity features like closures, builders and dynamic typing. If you are a developer, tester or script guru, you have to love Groovy."

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Samples

A simple hello world script:

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def name='World'; println "Hello $name!"

A more sophisticated version using Object Orientation:

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class Greet {
  def name
  Greet(who) { name = who[0].toUpperCase() +
                      who[1..-1] }
  def salute() { println "Hello $name!" }
}

g = new Greet('world')  // create object
g.salute()               // output "Hello World!"

Leveraging existing Java libraries:

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import static org.apache.commons.lang.WordUtils.*

class Greeter extends Greet {
  Greeter(who) { name = capitalize(who) }
}

new Greeter('world').salute()

On the command line:

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groovy -e "println 'Hello ' + args[0]" World

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