Groovy supports multiple ways to generate text dynamically including GStrings,
printf if you are using Java 5, and MarkupBuilder just to name a few. In addition to these, there is a dedicated template framework which is well-suited to applications where the text to be generated follows the form of a static template.
The template framework in Groovy consists of a
TemplateEngine abstract base class that engines must implement and a
Template interface that the resulting templates they generate must implement.
Included with Groovy are several template engines:
SimpleTemplateEngine– for basic templates
GStringTemplateEngine– stores the template as writable closures (useful for streaming scenarios)
XmlTemplateEngine– works well when the template and output are valid XML
Shown here is the
SimpleTemplateEngine that allows you to use JSP-like scriptlets (see example below), script, and EL expressions in your template in order to generate parameterized text. Here is an example of using the system:
While it is generally not deemed good practice to mix processing logic in your template (or view), sometimes very simple logic can be useful. E.g. in the example above, we could change this:
to this (assuming we have set up a static import for capitalize):
Advanced Usage Note
If you happen to be embedding your template directly in your script (as we did above) you have to be careful about backslash escaping. Because the template string itself will be parsed by Groovy before it is passed to the the templating framework, you have to escape any backslashes inside GString expressions or scriptlet 'code' that are entered as part of a Groovy program. E.g. if we wanted quotes around The Big Apple above, we would use:
Similarly, if we wanted a newline, we would use:
in any GString expression or scriptlet 'code' that appears inside a Groovy script. A normal "
\n" is fine within the static template text itself or if the entire template itself is in an external template file. Similarly, to represent an actual backslash in your text you would need
in an external file or
in any GString expression or scriptlet 'code'. (Note: the necessity to have this extra slash may go away in a future version of Groovy if we can find an easy way to support such a change.)
As an example of using the
GStringTemplateEngine, here is the example above done again (with a few changes to show some other options). First we will store the template in a file this time:
Note that we used
out instead of
GStringTemplateEngine. Because we have the template in a separate file, there is no need to escape the backslashes. Here is how we call it:
and here is the output:
If you wish to combine templating with Ant processing, consider Gpp.
Using TemplateServlet to serve single JSP-like HTML files
Here is a simple example helloworld.html file which is not validating and does not have a
head element. But it demonstrates, how to let Groovy compile and serve your HTML files to web clients. The tag syntax close to JSP and should be easy to read:
The first Groovy block - a for loop - spans the
HelloWorld! text. Guess what happens? And the second Groovy statement prints the servlet's session id - if there is a session avaiable. The variable
session is one of some default bound keys. More details reveals the documentation of
Here is some sample code using http://jetty.mortbay.orgs servlet container. With jetty6.0, copy jetty-6.1.3.jar and jetty-util-6.1.3.jar into $HOME/.groovy/lib, create a tiny web server with the following. To test it, add your above helloworld.html file into your current directory and browse http://localhost:1234/helloworld.html
Here is a similiar web.xml example.