With this new 2.1 release, Groovy:
- has full support for the JDK 7 “invoke dynamic” instruction and API,
- goes beyond conventional static type checking capabilities with a special annotation for closure delegate based Domain-Specific Languages and static type checker extensions,
- provides additional compilation customization options,
- and features a meta-annotation facility for combining annotations elegantly.
Full “invoke dynamic” support
With Groovy 2.0, we introduced support for JDK 7’s “invoke dynamic” bytecode instruction and API to benefit from the dedicated support and performance improvements for dynamic languages starting with JDK 7. Groovy 2.1 brings full support for “invoke dynamic” (aka“indy”), completing the work introduced in 2.0.
In Groovy 2.0, most method calls were using the “invoke dynamic” instruction, but there have been exceptions: constructor calls or “spread calls” (where you pass arguments with the “spread operator”). Groovy 2.1 completes the implementation started in 2.0. Now, code compiled with the “invoke dynamic” JAR on JDK 7 will not be using the old “call site caching” code which served us well for getting good performance for Groovy prior to JDK 7. If you are lucky enough to be using JDK 7 in production, be sure to use the Groovy 2.1 “indy” JAR to benefit from the full “invoke dynamic” support. The “indy” version is bundled with the binary download package and can be obtained via Maven (all JARs with “invoke dynamic” support are postfixed with “-indy”).
Groovy 2.1’s distribution bundles the recently released GPars 1.0, the one-stop shop for all your concurrency needs. This new version comes with various enhancements in the asynchronous functions, promises, parallel collections, actors, dataflow support, Google App Engine support, etc.
Authoring Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) has always been a sweet spot for Groovy, and the availability of closures and the malleable syntax of the language has allowed DSL implementors to build nice mini-languages like “builders”, to represent configuration or hierarchical data.
Thanks to the various delegation strategies of the
groovy.lang.Closure class, a range of very powerful techniques can be used when building DSLs. Due to different implementation techniques, inferring type information within the DSL has not been straightforward. This is especially an issue when DSLs should have proper IDE support (e.g. code completion).
The very popular and powerful Gradle build automation system uses its own DSL for build script specifications. On the DSL implementation layer are various methods taking closures as arguments, and with special delegation strategies delegating to some other parameter passed to them. Providing good IDE support for Groovy DSLs — like the one in Gradle — has presented a few challenges. Hence the need for the
Groovy 2.1 introduces the
@groovy.lang.DelegatesTo annotation as a documentation mechanism for DSL users and maintainers, as an IDE hint for providing better coding assistance, and as additional information that can be taken into account by the static type checker and static compilation introduced in Groovy 2.0. Let’s see that in action with some examples.
A closure delegate based method usage might look like the following:
exec() method takes a closure as parameter, and the actual
launch() call inside that closure is delegated to some particular object (the closure delegate), instead of being dispatched to the enclosing class. The above code would only fail at runtime (not at compile-time!), as the
launch() method can not be found in the closure context. In order to delegate method calls within the closure’s code block to another object instance, we need to set the closure delegate.
Setting a closure delegate is as easy as invoking
The delegate can be set to an arbitrary object instance (here, an instance of an
Executor class that has a
launch() method). When the delegate is set accordingly, we can execute the closure code.
Note that usually, to avoid odd behavior if the closure is used in multiple threads, we tend to clone that closure.
The problem with delegate objects are IDEs not knowing about them. Given our example, most IDEs will underline the
launch() method as being an unknown method in this context.
This is where
@DelegatesTo comes into play. By adding the
@DelegatesTo annotation to DSL methods like
exec(Closure), IDEs get the actual delegate type and other meta-data.
A future update might let GroovyDoc show the details about the annotation usage to help users know what methods they can call, what properties they can access, etc.
Here’s what your
exec() method will look like with the annotation:
Besides specifying the actual delegate type,
@DelegatesTo can be used to hint at the actual resolve strategy. The resolve strategy determines the order in which non-closure method / property calls are looked up. In our example,
Closure.DELEGATE_FIRST will be used. This indicates the closure will attempt to resolve against the given delegate object in first place, followed by the owner object:
IDE support is not the only reason to use
@DelegatesTo. The static type checker and static compiler take the additional meta-data specified by the @DelegatesTo annotation into account. If there is a typo in the closure code block, the type checker will complain. And if you use the static compilation capability introduced in Groovy 2.0, the calls will be compiled statically.
Let’s say we wouldn’t call
launchr() in the closure code block, we would get a message like:
Static type checks for custom Domain-Specific Languages is a very convenient feature in Groovy 2.1!
In addition, Groovy 2.1 features other abilities for even further type checking your DSLs, as you shall see in the following section.
Before moving on, let’s mention a few closing details about
@DelegatesTo allows to specify the receiver calls are delegated to. For instance, when a delegate calls a method or property on another method parameter. Imagine our
exec() method taking the
Executor argument instance as delegate:
In this example, the information is lost that the call is delegated to the
ex parameter. Thanks to the
@DelegatesTo.Target annotation we can specify ex as target for being the delegate object:
What if we had several
Executor parameters, how would we differentiate which one we’re targeting?
The delegation “target” can be specified with an arbitrary id. In the example above it is
One last very nice little feature: if you are using static type checking, you can omit the type of the parameter and
@DelegatesTo combined with “flow typing” (the ability of following the current type of an untyped variable) would still know if method calls are valid:
We’ve seen that the
@DelegatesTo helps documenting, tooling, and checking Domain-Specific Languages in the specific context of closure delegate based methods, but we hinted at the fact we can go beyond, in terms of static type checking for your DSLs.
Static type checking was introduced in Groovy 2.0, but Groovy 2.1 goes beyond built-in type checks and offers a way to create type checker extensions. This is great news for Groovy scripts, configuration files, or Domain-Specific Languages implementations as they can can be “type checked” with more advanced, domain-specific rules. As an example, it would be possible to create a custom DSL type checker that throws compilation errors when certain verbs of the DSL are not recognized, or tells this other noun is allowed even if it’s a dynamic name bound at runtime, or type checks literal strings containing SQL code to see if the syntax is correct, and more.
Imagine a script, where we define a small robot class and instantiate it:
And we want to operate our robot in the
operate() method, but we want this method to be type checked:
The static type checker will complain as it doesn’t understand where the
robot variable is coming from, as it’s going through the binding of the script — note that we could teach the type checker to figure out binding-bound variables. It will throw an error telling us that the robot variable was undeclared.
But by utilizing type checker extensions, we can hook into the type checking process to teach it how to handle unresolved variables! In order to do that, we’ll specify an extension script through the newly introduced
extensions annotation parameter of the
Now it’s time to define the type checker extension script called
RobotMove.groovy. The type checker extension script is written by applying a new DSL — the “type checking DSL”. The DSL provides various hooks for type checker extensions to register to. Going back to the example above, we register for unresolved variables using the
The type checker extension script needs to be on the classpath. If this is the case, the script gets notified during compile-time when the static type checker encounters an unresolved variable. The unresolved variable closure is handed over a
VariableExpression is an object directly from Groovy’s AST (Abstract Syntax Tree). It is a representation of the unresolved variable expression. The script checks if the variable is named
robot, if this is the case, we lookup a
ClassNode representing the
Robot class, and store the type of that variable back in the AST. At the end, the
handled property is set to true, to indicate the type checker already managed that variable. As a consequence, you won’t get the compilation error about that undeclared variable.
To continue the journey, let’s consider the case where the user enters a wrong direction string. We could of course use an enum or some other class containing direction constants, but for the sake of the example, we’ll have a look at how we can teach the type checker to inspect strings and how you can actually throw your own compilation errors.
For that purpose, let’s say a robot can only move left, right, forward and backward. And now, let’s change our robot move instruction to:
The robot is not allowed to move sideways, so we should instruct the type checker to throw a compilation error if it encounters a direction the robot will not be able to understand. Here’s how we can achieve our goal, by adding a new event handler to our
This handler receives a
MethodCall expression. We are using the
getTargetMethod() utility method to retrieve the corresponding
MethodNode. We check that the method call is a call to our
robot, and that the name of the method corresponds to themove method. Then, we fetch the arguments passed to that method call, and if we’re passed a direction in the form of a string constant, we are checking that the direction is an actual allowed direction. If this is not the case, we are adding a new static typing compilation error into the mix, so that the compiler will yell at the poor user because he used a direction which is forbidden and not understood by our robot.
This second example is also interesting in a way that it shows how you can even add compilation checks on things like literal strings on a domain-specific level, paving the way for possible checks on sprintf strings, on SQL or HQL code in strings, etc, allowing you to go even further that what the Java compiler actually checks.
The extension script can make use of various event oriented extension points and utility methods coming from the
TypeCheckingExtension class from Groovy, such as:
The two examples are just the tip of the iceberg, but we will work out more complete documentation of the various extension points and utility methods going forward.
Annotations are a great way to add supplementary meta-data to classes, methods, fields, and other source code elements, thus frameworks, libraries, and even Groovy’s homegrown AST transformations can take advantage of them to do some special treatments to the corresponding AST nodes. Every now and then the use case arises to reuse a combination of annotations, potentially at the expense of a galore of at-signs that obscure the general intent of that particular combination.
To group annotations together, to make the intent clearer or to streamline your code, Groovy 2.1 offers a meta-annotation system, which allows to combine other annotations into one “alias” annotation.
Imagine we are using some annotations defining constraints on properties of your class, like
@Pattern, which could be defined as follows:
An example of how to annotate an
ISBN property with those annotations could look like this:
For a single property, that’s quite a bit of annotation overload! And it could be the case of other domain classes with properties having the same validation rules as the ISBN property, where we would need to duplicate that pattern.
As of Groovy 2.1,
@groovy.transform.AnnotationCollector can be used to solve code duplication for this use case.
@AnnotationCollector can be specified on annotation types and acts as meta-annotation. Whenever an annotation marked with it is found, it is replaced with its own annotations. Let’s illustrate this with our ISBN example.
We will create a new annotation combination for the 13-digit ISBN standard, but this time, using the
@ISBN13 as a single annotation can now be applied on code elements, instead of applying the entire annotation gang::
What is particularly interesting with such meta-annotations is that they are actually replaced at compilation time with the real annotations. So if you counted the number of annotations on the
isbn13 property, you would count 3 (
@Pattern). Thus, your underlying framework doesn’t need to know about that meta-annotation solution and act accordingly.
In our example above, we annotated our meta-annotation with the annotations that are then combined together. But for annotations for which you don’t need to specify arguments, you could have also passed the names of the annotations to combine as parameters to the annotation collector:
In the above case, we combine the
@ToString transformation into a meta-annotation called
If you need to pass some specific parameter to one of the underlying annotations which are combined, you can still do so by passing the parameter to the meta-annotation.
Let’s assume we need to combine the following annotations:
We define the meta-annotation combining both the above annotations:
But we want to change the propagation strategy for the underlying
@Transactional annotation, we do so by passing the parameter to the meta-annotation:
Note that if two combined annotations share the same parameter name, the last annotation declared wins and gets the parameter passed to the meta-annotation.
If you need even more flexibility, meta-annotations allow you to define custom processors. The role of the custom processor is to go beyond the simple exchange of the meta-annotation with the combined annotations, to further customize the logic of that transformation.
Custom processors must be precompiled to take action, so we’ll create our processor, and then evaluate our final example with
GroovyShell, but first, let’s talk about the use case.
We have two validation annotations for defining a minimum and maximum value for an integer property:
If we want to define a range of values, with a lower and an upper bound, we could define a new annotation and implement the associated validation logic, or we could use custom meta-annotation processors to replace a range annotation with a minimum and a maximum one.
So instead of writing:
We could write:
With the normal replacement logic, there’s no way we can map the lower and upper bound values to the minimum and maximum annotation element default values. That is where custom processors come into play.
Our meta-annotation definition will look like this:
Notice how we specify that the
@Range annotation is a combination of
@Max, and more importantly, how we pass a processor parameter to the
@AnnotationCollector to instruct it about our custom meta-annotation processing logic.
In order to create a custom processor, you have to extend the
AnnotationCollectorTransform class and override the
A few words about the parameters : the
collector corresponds to the
@Range annotation definition,
usage to the actual usage of the
annotated is the annotated class, and
src is script being compiled.
We start our implementation of the processor by retrieving the numeric expressions of the bounds defined as the from and to annotation parameters, because we’ll pass those values back to the underlying
@Max combined annotations. In order to do that, we retrieve the
@Max combined annotations thanks to the
getTargetAnnotationList() method. We then set the values of the
@Max annotations to the expressions we’ve retrieved before. We remove the from and to bounds from the
@Range meta-annotation since those parameters aren’t really defined on a real annotation but on a meta-annotation. And last, we return the two
@Max annotations. If you wanted the Groovy compiler to do its usual replacement logic, you could have also called
super.visit(...), but in our case it wasn’t needed.
The full example can be found in this Gist on Github: https://gist.github.com/4563430
When integrating and evaluating Groovy scripts in an application for business rules or Domain-Specific Languages, it is often valuable to define a base script class, in order to add various utility methods, properties, or interception mechanisms for missing methods or properties.
CompilerConfiguration object, that you can pass to
GroovyShell and other integration mechanisms, allows you to specify a base script class with the
As of Groovy 2.1, we introduce the ability to define a base script class reference for your scripts via an additional command-line option
--basescript for the
groovyc command, as well as for the
Here’s an example using a script called
In the above script, we notice two things: the usage of a
lookupRate() method, and two undeclared variables:
USD. Neither the method, nor the variables have been defined in our script. Instead, they are provided by a base script class, which can look like the following
lookupRate() method used in our script is declared in the the base class, and the two currencies are retrieved via the
Now it’s time to wire them together, by instructing the groovyc compiler or the
groovy command line launcher to use our base script class for all
Similarly to the
--basescript flag, there’s another new option for the
groovyc commands: the
--configscript flag. Its purpose is to let you further configure the compiler, in a configuration script, by parameterizing the
CompilerConfiguration object used for the compilation.
CompilerConfiguration, you can customize the various aspects of the Groovy compilation process. For example, you can specify various compilation customizers introduced in Groovy 1.8. Imagine you want to add a new default import to your classes, like importing all
java.lang.Math functions and constants, so that your scripts and classes don’t have to prefix those functions and constants all the time, and to avoid having to do that import wherever needed. Here’s how you can proceed.
At first, your script,
mathFormula.groovy, contains the following lines:
For evaluating such math expressions, you wish to make the static import implicit, so that the final script will actually look like this:
If you’d run it as is, you’d get an error message saying:
We need to use
CompilerConfiguration to do add an
ImportCustomizer. We’ll create ai
mportConfigurer.groovy script with the content below:
We import and then instantiate an
ImportCustomizer, on which we ask for a static star import of the methods and constants of the
java.lang.Math class. Eventually, we pass that customizer to the
configuration variable, which is an instance of
CompilerConfiguration that will be used for the compilation of your math formula.
Now, we are able to execute your formula with the following command-line:
If you use the groovy compiler to compile all your classes, one drawback of the approach above is that the customization applies globally to all classes that are going to be compiled. You may want to add certain default imports only in certain classes (ie. scripts containing math), but you might want to do something different for other classes, like adding a
@ToString transformation to all the domain classes of your application. For that purpose, a new customizer was created, the
SourceAwareCustomizer, to let you filter which classes should be impacted by particular compilation customizations, such as filtering by class name, by file extension, or by a custom logic.
Coming back to our previous example, let’s add the default import to our
mathFormula.groovy script, but add a
@ToString transformation to the
The more complex the customization becomes, the more cumbersome the above configuration becomes to write too, that’s why Groovy 2.1 also provides a builder for building these types of configurations.
The builder allows you to use a familiar declarative syntax and saves you from adding manually various imports. Let’s adapt our example above with the builder:
The configuration code is easier to read and maintain, thanks to the clarity brought by thebuilder approach. But we’ve only seen a couple examples of customization, and you should have a look at the other customizations available in theorg.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.builder package to learn more about them.
Other Minor Enhancements
Additional DGM methods
There are now
withFormatter methods for
There are now methods for creating temporary directories and determining the total size of all files in a directory.
There is now a
collectMany for maps (has been backported to earlier versions of Groovy too).
There is now a
closeStreams() method for
You can now explicitly set a file encoding.
There is a method for escaping / encoding XML entities in Strings.
There is a convenience method for serializing
You can now clone
name() method now works for all
Node objects not just
Can now carry over annotations if desired for methods and method parameters.
You can now cache the
toString value. This is useful for immutable objects.
You can now cache the calculated
hashCode value. This is useful for immutable objects.
There is support for using a “jar:” prefix when running a script from a URL, in addition to "file:" and "http:".
You can now specify
knownImmutables. When you know you are using an immutable object but its type isn’t one of the known immutable types.
Mulitple environments blocks are now supported and merged.
There is now a
AutoCloneStyle which avoids some annoyances with Java’s cloning behavior from
Object. Those who need to clone Grails domain objects might find this useful.