No violations will be created by running an analysis, external reports must be created first. See Generating Violations Reports for Supported Tools
You can analyze your projects using the usual means (see this page for all available). All runners should work. See below for details how to do it for maven-, ant-, and all-the-other-projects.
Doing sonar analysis on maven projects is quite simple and usually a matter of:
<properties> ... <sonar.language>c++</sonar.language> ... </properties> <build> ... <sourceDirectory> path </sourceDirectory> ... </build>
For details see the first sample project.
Outside of the maven world the process of integration of a sonar analysis into your project is usually less straightforward but also more flexible. The rough pattern should remain the same independent of the environment:
Use the sonar-runner to trigger the Cxx plugin which parses the result files and feeds the data into sonar. The sonar runner requires some data to proceed which is usually provided via the "sonar-project.properties"-file in the projects root directory.
There may be a Step '0' too: "use your build system to make a build suitable for running the Step 1". This may be the case for collecting coverage statistics when using gcc+gcov, for example.
For details how to invoke the tools and tie it all together see the second sample project.